Being a victim of crime is a delicate balance. In the beginning, you are like a “sponge “who soaks up all of the emotions as they come in a flurry of activity. And, it’s mostly bad. You can’t see the forest for the trees. You may have a blind trust in the system based upon what others might have told you, or what you have seen on television; particularly if your family unit has walked the straight and narrow and you were “just a victim of circumstance.”
What keeps you upright and able to function depends upon many factors. Do you have an inner strength, a resilience that is already built in? Are you a good problem solver? Can you “go solo” if other family members veer off in other directions? Is your support system composed of just “fair weather friends” or are some in it for the long haul? Are you a person that typically retreats or do you reach out? Have you figured out what makes you feel better no matter what happens? Do you have the means to get away from your immediate environment for awhile if only to assimilate the drastic change that has taken place? Can you picture yourself being “therapized” by a professional counselor in a one to one relationship, or perhaps in a support group with others experiencing similar crimes?
How do you know who to trust? Who will safeguard your feelings no matter how irrational they seem? Will your best friend not judge you and place expectations if you do not “bounce back “in two weeks? Sleeping too much; Not sleeping at all; overeating, under-eating, drinking to cover the pain. All of these and more could be part of your scenario as a crime victim.
The length of time taken to “recover “and discover a new normal is highly variable. However, in general, if the intense pain and anger remains with you for several weeks to months, you need professional remediation. I can spot these victims ten miles away, their demeanor, their lack of motivation, the language they use, their poisonous view of life.” The reality is that if this is the person looking into the mirror, it is not truly “your fault.” Ahhh, but life is never fair. The “higher power” who deals the cards is to some extent, in control of destiny.
Crime Victims and Compassion
What about age and gender? The generally perceived to be true, yet unscientific observation is that males typically are the late bloomers in life, and less mature than the female gender. However, they also are acculturated to be “a man” devoid of emotion just by virtue of being male. How very unfair! So, we really have to be more patient with the male species and accept “as is” for the short term. Picking them for life partners is an entirely different story and fodder for another time.
I was recently told by a somewhat arrogant man that I was looking for the “magic pill” when trying to improve a situation. I know there is no magic pill for ANYTHING, but do new crime victims know this fresh out of the gate? No! Don’t they need something to believe in? Don’t they need a place to rest their soul and know that it will be handled with care? Yes, of course!
There is that fine line when you need to extend a hand and be ever so patient as compared to giving a bit of a shove or “kick in the ass.” I say kick in the ass with much sincerity and care. If a crime victim gives you vibes they need help and are afraid to take it, you take the risk of turning them off or calling their bluff using such a tactic. A better term would be “tough love” after evaluating their situation in a holistic manner. Regardless, you are showing you care even if they don’t realize it.
When there is a “meeting of the minds” and you can provide a valuable service in their journey, such as a customized victim impact writing service, this is a definite bright spot in their existence. You remove a great burden from their shoulders!
Key into the term “customized.” A thoughtful, personalized victim impact statement can change the outcome of sentencing hearings and pardons and parole hearings if given the opportunity “to shine.” Victim impact statements should not be written from the same old template like sausages turned out in the sausage factory! Every person is unique and should be valued as such!
See details here: http://donnagore.com/victim-impact-statement-assistance/
“WHY DON’T THEY JUST LEAVE? (Asked the legislator, the police, the neighbor, the passive observer etc…)
The Sabel (Cabbage) Palmetto Tree of South Carolina –
They are remarkably hardy, resistant to fire, floods, coastal conditions, cold, high winds and drought. Sabal palmettos are very cold-hardy and able to survive relatively short periods of temperatures as low as 7 °F –(13 °C) and occasionally much lower. Maintenance of the Cabbage Palm tree is very easy and very adaptable. This palm is known to tolerate drought, standing water and brackish water. Even though this palm is drought-tolerant, it thrives on regular light watering and regular feeding. It is highly tolerant of salt winds, but not saltwater flooding.
Under such hardy palms swaying in the breeze, lives a state, the State of South Carolina under siege with the highest homicide rate against women in the country, for the third time in ten years! Many of these victims have come through a personal siege of their own, of which intimate partner violence is a very real component. They have had to be hardy, adaptable and tolerate extremes…just like the mighty Sabel palm. Who is there to offer a safety net? Enter Elmire Raven, M.A. (pronounced El-meer), Executive Director of My Sister’s House in North Charleston, South Carolina!
The primary reasons given by victims for remaining or returning to their abusive relationships generally fall within a few categories. According to Raven, a seasoned professional who has lived and worked in the trenches with the victims of intimate partner violence for 25 years, the heart of the matter can be distilled to the following justifications. (I commented regarding each category below.) Keep in mind, that generalities can be dangerous, as every person; every case has its complexities. However, these truths continue to bind victims to their abusers just the same.
- Love – is blind- When we’re in it, we see what we want to see…
- Paternity – is a biological fact of life, but it has noting to do with morality;
- Potential Homelessness – keeps us down and out and nowhere to rest our weary mind;
- No Transportation- No wheels or anyone to provide those wheels forces us to remain a “prisoner of our current circumstances;”
- No Financial Resources- If a woman has no money to sustain her plan of escape; it cannot proceed, as basic financial resources and a way to continue a cash flow is vital to independence.
Why is it that legislators, police, neighbors and others believe that it is a simple matter of “just leaving?” The truth is, they do not understand the dynamics, the clever manipulations and keen observations of the abuser and the power they have over the victim; what information, threats they use to “keep the woman in line.” In the mind of the victim, the perpetrator’s threats are worse than her current situation. And so, frequently, she is resigned to “go along to get along,” taking the abuse, injuries and terror in stride, devoid of dignity, living a surreal numbing existence.
One tool in the “Domestic Violence toolbox” being circulated nationally in honor of the years of effort by the late Susan Murphy Milano, is the prevention tool known as the EAA -Evidentiary Abuse Affidavit which is a component of her revolutionary Document the Abuse program.
Although South Carolina has consistently been in the “top ten” of intimate partner homicides, the tri-county area which My Sister’s House serves has recently seen a decrease in the numbers within their area. The most significant reason is the unity of organizations, the pooling of resources, and working together for the common goal, helping victims. They have also taken on the added responsibility of providing temporary resources for survivors of human trafficking, a growing population with unique requirements, and different from those of domestic violence.
Shattered Lives Radio had the pleasure of examining the issues surrounding intimate partner violence in South Carolina and universally.
Join us for the interview with Elmire Raven. Below are selected written highlights of the show.
- Introduction to our guest
- The evolution of domestic violence –IPV programs in the South and what they offer now
- Ranking of Number one in homicides against women- Why?
- Guns, legislation and what a perpetrator is charged with….OR NOT!
- The Key- Community support and involvement
- Discussion of housing, transportation and the trips to court
- No tools in order to leave…..
- The victim – Making a decision; What’s involved? 35% -5 to 7 times…..
- Do they ever turn people away?
- A discussion of “to report or not to report”
- Opportunities for cutting edge collaborations with Human Trafficking and HIV initiatives:
- Human Trafficking victims – A very complex issue!
- Building a new facility in the future!
- Donation & Contact Information: www.mysistershouse.org
- Administrative Line: 843-747-4069;
- 24 Hour Hotline: 843-744-3242 In -State
- 1-800-273 –HOPE Nationwide-24/7
Questions for the Listening Audience:
- What’s the significance of these numbers in the discussion– 36, 85?
- In Elmire’s opinion, what is the biggest influence on the number of homicides in South Carolina?
- Criminal Domestic Violence Coordinating Council – What’s it all about?
- Is the faith-based community part of the answer? Why-Why-not?
- What are the components of their volunteer program?
- What is the main reason why women return to their abusers?
- How is enabling a factor and reasons for returning to the shelter?
- How to we sort out “getting the perpetrator in trouble” versus stopping the abuse?
- What is the average stay for residents at My Sister’s House?
- Is there a central place in Southeastern South Carolina for those who are trafficked?
- What can be done in rural areas?
- What influences came to play in Elmire’s success with My Sister’s House?
- What was Elmire’s parting comment re debunking the greatest myth?
The comments expressed on this website or on the broadcasts of Shattered Lives do not necessarily reflect the opinions or beliefs of the hosts, producers, or other guests.
“WHY DON’T THEY JUST LEAVE?
San Francisco is famous for earthquakes…. However, it took another horrific event to shake its residents to the core in January, 2001. What happens when you pair a world class marathon runner, who in an instant is physically trapped and literally torn to shreds with the likes of a vicious Presa Canarios attack dogs? Death occurs in the blink of an eye… or in her individual case… a few hours after surgery.
Diane Whipple’s heart must have stopped for all intents and purposes at the very moment when the two animals bolted, tore off her clothes, crushed her larynx and severed her jugular vein in a “head to toe” mauling.
This case, turned out to be the most bizarre, the most grotesques ever told…ever unfolding like layers of an onion. As a member of the gay and lesbian community, Ladyjustice grieved for this athlete, loved partner and resident of this liberal city in California.
Author, Aphrodite Jones did a laudable job in her account of this story in “Red Zone- The Behind the Scenes Story of a San Francisco Dog Mauling.” A free lance writer named David Barry; writing for the Southern Poverty Law Center, did an equally fine job trying to explain the unexplainable in a series of articles, from which this blog is written. Ladyjustice will attempt to “hit the highlights,” expose written light on the bizarre events and relate what little good was derived from the savage death of Diane Whipple.
Diane Whipple (Before) & Bonnie Busch (After)
Diane Whipple was a college Lacrosse coach and marathon runner, 34 years old with a petite frame. Diane lived with her partner, Sharon Smith who was an investment company manager. Diane was described by the male defendant, Robert Noel as “a timid mousey blonde” who “almost had a coronary” when prophetically two weeks earlier, the 140 pound and 115 pound dogs rushed out of the elevator nearly knocking her down and terrifying her!
Ellen McCurtain, a marathon runner wrote a short narrative for www.maraathonandbeyond.com in which another woman incredibly experienced a near fatal attack in Davenport, Iowa. Reportedly,just two days after Diane Whipple was murdered, Bonnie Busch, a national class extreme runner, was attacked by two Rottweilers while running at 6 a.m. The two dogs, weighing 110 and 140 pounds respectively, dragged Bonnie for half a block before a stranger rescued her, fending the dogs off with a shovel. A severed forearm and nerve damage was the outcome along with months of Rehabilitation therapy.
The Crime – “In a Nutshell”
- Attorney’s and married couple Marjorie Knoller & Robert Noel lived in the upscale Pacific Heights neighborhood, sharing space with two killer attack dogs. Marjorie & Robert started out as tax and commercial lawyers… and slipped to the dark side after a progression of events to satisfy their perverse appetites;
- In 1994, Robert and Marjorie Knoller represented a prison guard who was harassed by colleagues after testifying on behalf of brutalized inmates. It was reported that they lost the case …and the prison guard hanged himself;
- Their second case was a bust too… after which they appeared to switch sides when they defended a Pelican Bay guard with ties to the Aryan Brotherhood (White prison gang said to have several hundred in-house members with large concentrations in Texas, Florida and Missouri);
- A witness, Paul Schneider, entered into a bizarre partnership on many levels with the Noel and Knoller; He had a very long rap sheet including a life sentence for attempted murder and robbery;
- Schneider was the unofficial manager of the Aryan Brotherhood at Pelican Bay, effectively ordering killings in and out of Pelican Bay Prison;
- Apparently, both Robert Noel and Marjorie Knoller were unafraid of this prisoner whose nickname was “Cornfield.” For example, he was so heinous in his actions, that he once carried a knife in his rectum into court and stabbed his attorney, whom he disliked. Noel and Knoller were unphased by such behavior, were in fact attracted to him and his penchant for extreme violence…. And went so far as to legally “adopt” this blonde, body building 220 pound prisoner!;
- Their long distance business was comprised of a website, and the purchase and rising of the mammoth dogs to sell for the purpose of attacking others and guarding methamphetamine labs. Robert and Marjorie agreed to take over the care of the vicious dogs named Bane and Hera after another woman named Janet Coumbs could not handle her assignment from the Arian Brothers;
- EMTs and animal control officers who answered the call after Diane was attacked feared for their lives trying to contain and kill the dogs within Whipple’s apartment.
Blaming the Victim
- San Franciscan’s were so shocked and outraged that the trial necessitated a change of venue to Los Angeles;
- Noel and Knoller made another fatal mistake in “blaming the victim;”
- Marjorie expressed no remorse whatsoever. She took no responsibility for her dog’s behaviors. She made disgusting comments like, “If only she had stood still, she’d be alive;” “Bane sniffed her crotch like she (Diane) was a bitch in heat.” “She probably had her period which attracted the dog” or “It was the steroids.”
- Robert and Marjorie claimed that there had been no other incidents – that their dogs “were peaceful;”
- Prosecutor James Hammer produced 30 incident reports of petrifying encounters by other neighbors as well as a veterinarian’s initial warning that, “These animal would be a liability in any household;”
- [Ladyjustice recalls watching this trial on Court TV and remembers the theatrics of Marjorie’s attorney, Nedra Ruiz who “put on a show” crawling on the courtroom floor supposedly re-enacting how Knoller tried to fend off her dogs and “protect Diane Whipple.” Apparently, it didn’t impress the jury. Attorney Ruiz painted a picture of the Knollers as “upstanding citizens who loved their dogs as family members.” [LJ- What a crock!]
What were the factors contributing to the decline into darkness? How and why did these two seemingly well educated formerly upscale people slide so far into violence and perversion? One can only guess and try to put the pieces together regarding their behaviors and comments.
- Robert Noel was 60 years old and Marjorie Knoll was 46. However, Knoller looked the older – matronly, plain and unattractive;
- The Aryan Brothers expert speculated that Marjorie “just fell in love with Schneider.” Robert was also attracted by Schneider’s extreme violence and machismo, unlike his own former lifestyle;
- Pelican guard, Keith Whitley saw the change in Noel and the distractions, as when Whitley would call Noel about a case and… “all he would talk about was how big Bane’s (dog) balls were, and how he was fixated on the dog’s penis and erections;”
- Robert Noel even encouraged his wife’s attraction with Aryan Brother’s “adopted son” Paul Cornfield” Schneider.”[Ladyjustice – QUESTION What the hell was the judge thinking who was overseeing and approving this “adoption”? If the judge had only taken the time to research what was going on… Diane Whipple might be alive today! ‘Sound familiar?]
- There was evidence of literature and killer dog training techniques in the apartment;
- Attorney ethics and monitoring of their “son” appeared to have never existed, as evidenced by Schneider and seven others being charged with racketeering in the attempted murders of 24 people spanning 15 years. These charges were in addition to the violation of prison rules disallowing inmates managing unapproved businesses.
As writer David Barry put it so starkly,… “For three years, Noel and Knoller flirted with the violent codes, along with the explosively repressed sexuality of gang prison life. Little by little, they abandoned the trappings of middle class professional life, taking up the work and attitudes of the Aryan Brotherhood instead.”
Investigators discovered topless photos of Marjorie in Paul Schneider’s cell, erotic letters to him from both Robert and Marjorie… as well as bestiality- photos of Knoller and the dogs having sex.
Depravity has no boundaries, apparently!
Postscript: In the interim, the only small measure in Diane Whipple’s memory, is a California legislative bill “holding caretakers criminally responsible for the actions of their animals.”www.dogbite.com sources reported that California still has no law that defines second degree murder in the specific context when it is “canine inflicted.”
In September 2008, a San Francisco Superior Court judge sentenced Knoller to 15 years to life in prison after she re-instated a second degree murder conviction against Knoller. Previously, it was thrown out in 2002 by the original trial judge, when Marjorie was sentenced to four years in prison for involuntary manslaughter and released on parole in 2004. Her husband, Robert Noel was also convicted previously of involuntary manslaughter and released in September 2003.
“No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.” Buddha
It occurred to me that the general populace might actually embrace taking care of their bodies with Dr. Dalal Akoury if she set the “anatomy and physiology of it all” to some cool tunes, just like they did in the days of Sesame Street! YES! Who doesn’t remember “Conjunction Junction” (What’s your Function?)
Such a cool Rock tune! Listen! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODGA7ssL-6g
Why not?? We remember radio jingles, don’t we? It could work!
But in the meantime, until my synapses calm down, I’ll say that the revolutionary aspect of Dr. Dalal Akoury’s Addiction Recovery Treatment seeks to restore neuro-endocrine imbalances, incorporate the spirit, and rejuvenate the body to a state of homeostasis – comfort- harmony “working like a finely tuned engine” again! There is no substitution of drugs or awful withdrawal here. Her methods are naturally based and customized for each person offering that which your body needs and then replenishing it back to a state of optimum operation! Even more remarkable…. … it is a ten-day program!
We can do it one person at a time, or one physician at a time. However, the bottom line is to change society’s perception that addicts are all “down and out disposable people doing street drugs and not worth a second look.” The reality is that we have no farther to look than our own empty medicine cabinets and the oodles of doctor prescription pads, written on a whim instead of really looking for the root cause versus providing a “band aid measure”…. Or pacifying a patient when you have too many others to see…. Or keeping the pharmaceutical sales rep and your staff happy when they bring in free lunch for all along with their samples! Finally, the number of Hollywood celebrities who “crash and burn” is very disheartening, for some of us look to them as models in society, when they really succumb to the pressure of “stardom” and hit bottom for the world to view! How very tragic and needless! We all need to die with dignity when the true time has come ….not chained to our addictions!
Regarding the relationship to crime, there is no stronger motivator to commit crime, especially repeatedly, than for the purpose of maintaining an addiction. To provide the reader with a “snapshot and a taste of reality,” I provide you with the following data:
Statistics show that most modern-day crime is either a direct result of addiction, or indirectly a result of mental health and addiction related circumstances. Once incarcerated most inmates are not properly assessed for treatment options.
In 2005, federal, state and local governments spent $74 billion on incarceration, court proceedings, probation and parole for substance-involved adult and juvenile offenders, and less than 1% of that amount—$632 million—on prevention and treatment, according to CASAColumbia’s research. The report found that only 11% of all inmates with addiction received any treatment during their incarceration. The report found that if all inmates who needed treatment and aftercare received such services, the nation would break even in a year if just over 10% remained substance-free, crime-free and employed. Thereafter, for each former inmate who remained substance-free, crime-free and employed, the nation would reap an economic benefit of $90,953 per year.
Shattered Lives Radio was proud to have Dr. Akoury on this episode to learn about all facets of addiction and the relationship to crime.
- Introduction to our guest
- The reward system, imbalance and epigenetics…. (Gene translation and transcription combined with environmental factors) The heart of the matter….
- “Chasing the High” over and over
- Maintaining…. and your reserves – like the “foundation of a house”
- Exposure, getting rid of the “blame game” and restoring mind, body and spirit
- Delilah on changing society’s perception
- ADDICTION -1 in 3 people!
- Draining the brain energy and the degree of damage
- Restoring mind body and spirit
- No withdrawal…. A personal story
- Ladyjustice reveals data on incarceration and addiction
- Self-restoration if given the tools
- A message to addicts who have committed crime
- The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine:
- Contact Information: www.awaremed.com Tel: 843-213-1480
- Postscript: For a fascinating and complimentary discussion of this topic, please refer to one of Dr. Akoury’s colleagues, Dr. Gregory Smith and his interview with her about his film “The American Addict” http://americanaddictthemovie.com/
Questions for the Doctor:
- What is the importance of our “reward system”?
- Dopamine – What role does it play?
- What kind of toxins imbalance your body?
- How to we compensate for lack of energy?
- The effects of alcohol and “the vicious cycle”?
- When should we start addressing addiction?
- How does the role of stress influence our biological make up?
- How do we change the perception of society, our worth as human beings and the problems that plague us?
- What is restoring the network – “highway”?
- What is ATP and why is it so important?
- What is the challenge of “the Benzos”…and alcohol?
- What are the components of Dr. Akoury’s treatment plan?
- What is the difference between substituting drugs versus a restoration approach?
- What should be the focus of addicted persons who have committed crime?
- What are examples of “feel good natural drugs?”
- What is the “other disease” keeping pace with the epidemic of addiction?
The comments expressed on this website or on the broadcasts of Shattered Lives do not necessarily reflect the opinions or beliefs of the hosts, producers, or other guests.
Conjunction Junction – What’s that Function? (To Combat Addiction, that is?)…with Dalal Akoury, MD
A “scathingly brilliant idea” was the operative term for a wonderful movie said to be for adolescents… but really meant for adults as well, known as “The Trouble with Angels.”(AlthoughLadyjustice isn’t of the Catholic faith, she has a soft spot for movies set in the convent, as she formerly consulted as a speech pathologist in a school convent setting for a few years, “in a former life.”)
Take a few veteran actresses, including Roslyn Russell, the flawless comedic timing of a young Hayley Mills and June Harding; mix in your local castle turned convent, add your standard yellow school bus, many mischievous pranks and you have an entertaining comedy-drama that is timeless! However, under the surface, there are adult themes and lessons to be learned.
This 1966 re-mastered Columbia pictures movie with its lively musical score pulls at your heartstrings, makes you care about the characters … and respect the Catholic church in one big breath… It’s really a coming of age tale…
How many girls, afraid of gym class, thought of ailment after ailment to avoid the pain? It’s in this movie… How many adolescents push the limits or experienced the world through misguided parents, only to be sent to private schools to “set them straight?” It’s in this movie. The topic of death is also dealt with in a respectful and poignant manner in The Trouble with Angels.” A variety of pranks that would be considered “good clean fun” by today’s standards result in no shooting, stabbings or name calling. Instead, punishment includes, washing pot, janitorial service and doing penance with the Stations of the Cross. (Whatever that means exactly, Ladyjustice doesn’t know…)
It is in the relationship between the characters of Mills, Harding and Russell as the Reverend Mother that Haley (Mary Clancy) – the wayward rebellious ringleader begins to see that her life choices are broadened by the experience of St. Francis Academy. Mary sees an opportunity to use her “scathingly brilliant ideas” to serve others… including God. The film shows her peeking around corners and hiding in the shadows in awe of the sisters’ devotion and discipline.
Running gags and quirky personalities keep the story line moving such as:
The temperamental boiler becomes a character in itself at the Academy and spurs them into action to try to win a band competition to fix the broken down antiquated equipment; “Playing the silent piano;” The loveable and unique character of “Sister Legory” – Mother ‘s Assistant and Math Teacher Extraordinaire who uses horse racing “The Last Race at Pimlico” (Baltimore’s premier destination and home of the Preakness stakes) as her motivation along with doling out saintly metals for good grades; “Marvel Ann-“ Mary Clancy’s ne’er do well, gullible cousins. “Charlotte-“another student who faints on other students at the drop of a hat…. Pranks including unauthorized tours, havoc in the sister’s private dining room, near fires, “immortalizing” gullible students with plaster casts…bring the characters portrayed by Roslyn Russell, Mary Wicks and Marge Redmound to the brink of contemplating expulsion or homicide… if it wasn’t for Mary and Rachel’s questionable family ties… and a great deal of tolerance.
An “all nighter” is pulled by June/Rachael and Reverend Mother in an attempt to enter a dress design contest. This particular scene is touching and may have been the deciding factor in Haley/Mary’s coming of age….. Perceived betrayal at the end of the movie among the two inseparables leaves a lump in your throat (if you have ever experienced rejection!) Who hasn’t? Ladyjustice won’t spoil the surprise ending….
So, try it, you’ll like it. It’s a scathingly brilliant form of escapism and a nice change of pace from cops and robbers. By the way, there is a sequel minus Hayley Mills and June Harding.
Some key scenes: WATCH HERE
Scathingly Brilliant Ladyjustice”
A grandes males, grandes remedies!
(Big Troubles Call for Big Remedies!)
According to the Gospels, when Jesus heard that John the Baptist had been killed, he withdrew by boat privately to a solitary place near Bethsaida. The crowds followed Jesus on foot. When Jesus landed and saw a large crowd, he had compassion on them and healed their sick. The disciples came to him and said, “This is a remote place, and it’s already getting late. Send the crowds away, so they can go to the villages and buy themselves some food.”
Jesus said,“But we only have five loaves of bread and two fish for them,” said the disciples. Jesus directed the people to sit down on the grass. Taking the five loaves and the two fishes and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves. Jesus and the disciples gave the loaves and fishes to the people. They all ate and were satisfied, and the disciples picked up twelve basketfuls of broken pieces that were left over. Approximately five thousand men, in addition to women and children were fed that miraculous day!
What a life lesson! Miracles do occasionally happen. One such miracle is the miracle of the MAG Coalition. The heart and soul of this organization is Yuli Alonso Garza and her community in Imperial Valley, California. From the tragedy and loss of her beloved son, Martin Alberto Garza, a better quality of life away from gang culture is being fostered! The community has embraced this cause wholeheartedly for the betterment of all and much has been accomplished since that dark night of January 6, 2013 when Martin’s life was snuffed out.
The next chapter, the judicial chapter, has stalled like a sputtering engine starting and stopping, causing much frustration. However, the Garza family rises above and looks to God. They are hopeful and confident, relying on the wisdom of a higher power and faith in the criminal justice system. It is at this intersection, once a trial and eventual sentencing date is set, that a victim impact statement can be provided to the court from families like the Garzas. The statement customizes their thoughts and feelings and creates a lasting, positive, impact, painting a true picture and presence in the courtroom for who the victim truly was! (Victim Impact Assistance Service available)
Shattered Lives Radio welcomed Yuli Garza back for a special update following the initial show. Please listen to the Podcast of the original radio show for more detail about Yuli’s son, Martin, and the case at hand. The outcome has yet to be revealed. Patience is a virtue, and the Garza family is virtuous, and we are hopeful that they will be victorious.
· Introduction to our guest;
· A stellar 17 year old with a full life ahead of him and abruptly stuck down
· The importance of MEN getting involved in the lives of their children and communities
· Are gangs glamorized in Southern California?
· The Letterman Jacket program “GO BIG OR GO HOME FUN RAISER” – a model activity
· The court process and the importance of the California Gang Enhancement Statutes: “The California Step Act:”
· A new reality…
· CONTACT INFO: firstname.lastname@example.org
MAG Coalition PO BOX 1639 Brawley, California 92227
· What were some of the qualities that made Martin such a special young man?
· What were the circumstances surrounding the crime?
· How did the family cope?
· How does the highest unemployment rate impact crime in the Imperial Valley?
· What is the easiest way to acquire funds for kids?
· Is rehabilitation and prevention part of the MAG Coalition?
· What was the pilot program about concerning the Letterman Jacket program?
· What does the blue and gold colors represent?
· What kinds of community partners have joined and what has been the benefit to students?
· What is the significance of the Gang enhancement statutes to the Garza’s case?
· What does “one day at a time“ truly mean now over a year later?
· How did Yuli commemorate the first anniversary of Martin’s death and a future project?
· What is her long range goal for MAG?
A grandes males, grandes remedies! Gang culture will not be tolerated…
“We have, in fact, two kinds of morality side by side; One which we preach but do not practice, and another which we practice but seldom preach.” Bertrand Russell
Our day to day lives are so entrenched with juggling responsibilities, covering the bases, and maybe…if there’s time, a little relaxation. Seldom do we take the time to think about the burdens of our young people. We collectively think…they are young, they are resilient… As parents and concerned citizens, do we really take the time to monitor and listen? After Columbine, Virginia Tech, and Newtown, we should know that our young, more than ever need a moral compass. They are not equipped to navigate solo.
Do we wait for tragedy to strike as a gallery member of a court proceeding? If and when this happens, there is assistance I can offer regarding the creation of custom and personalized Victim Impact Statements. However, if I could trade my skills for this service and spare all teens this experience, I surely would!
In the meantime, we are left to deal with the ever increasing escalation of violence in our society…visited far too often upon our young by their peers. These occurrences are vastly underreported. Many dedicated individuals across the country and the world are forging new paths and trying to assure safe passage of trust through education and awareness. Three such individuals in Mecklenberg County, North Carolina know from whence they speak. They have lived the life of a victim of relationship violence and assist others through a variety of wonderful campaigns designed to speak to teens. Shattered Lives hosts spent a compelling hour exchanging information, ideas and feelings on the vital topic of teen dating violence. No more will there be a pass on this behavior! WE MUST help to bring it out of the shadows!
LISTEN TO SHATTERED LIVES RADIO
- Announcements regarding Victim Impact Writing Service and the Two Year Anniversary Celebration of “Shattered Lives” Radio:
- Introduction to our guests
- Teen issues “swept under the rug”- Why is this such an important topic?
- What are “Respect Week” and “National Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month” all about?
- Juliana Lozano – A personal story of teen dating violence beginning at age 17;
- It got worse and worse …pinching, pushing, holding me down and punching
- The cycle of good and bad. Getting back together out of loneliness
- After the baby was born an escalation occurred
- After “keying my face” with the car keys…. what happened?
- Delilah on Violence knows no age and “classic symptoms”
- Delilah asks about the system of first response when violence occurs?
- Love is Respect National Hotline: http://www.loveisrespect.org/get-help/contact-us/call-us
- Delilah asks, how did Juliana get her life together after leaving her perpetrator?
- Vulnerability and threats continue via text
- Shattered Lives recommend Document the Abuse to Juliana as another tool:
- Melissa responds regarding her opinion on use of restraining orders;
- Ladyjustice offers her opinion;
- Jimmeka Anderson’s role and what she does with her non-profit and the damaging effects of media
- Discussion of booking opportunities in Charlotte and other states
- Trained programmed specialists as part of iamnotthemedia.org “The media tells us what to think versus how to think”
- Melissa comments on working with parents and how to start the conversation early
- Jimmeka’s job at Imaginon: http://www.imaginon.org/About_ImaginOn/default.asp
- Increased awareness and interactions in improving the daily lives of peers
- Ladyjustice asks about incorporation of curriculum with the State Board of Education and legislation.
- Ladyjustice asks about Juliana’s status now- working on a Master‘s degree in May
- Delilah asks about how often do they see charges being filed with teen the process- advantages and disadvantages?
- Underreporting, shame, fear and feeling controlled-To file charges or not to file
- Same Sex couples not receiving protection in many states including the South. The Answer – Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network- http://glsen.org/policy
- Choosing the path to report abuse of the one in three, only one third of those are reporting abuse to anyone!
- Ladyjustice asks what Melissa does in terms of referral if they chose not to report abuse to the court?
- Love is Respect Hotline and Text Services
- Call 1-866 -331-9474; http://www.loveisrespect.org/get-help/contact-us/text-service
- What is the prevalence of abuse concerning abuse geographically?
- A film sponsored by the Library at Imaginon –
- Event Type: Movies/Films
Age Group(s): Teens (12-18)
Start Time: 2:00 PM
End Time: 5:00 PM
Come watch a movie “ Reviving Ophelia” in 2012 with us that will highlight the dangers of teen dating violence. February is Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month.
- Library: ImaginOn: The Joe & Joan Martin Center
Location: The Wells Fargo Lobby
- YouTube Preview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrRtJY28ps8
- What other activities will be on-going simultaneously with the film?
- Ladyjustice asks about Melissa’s year round role? Working under An LGBT Grant for three years working with teens;
- Message: This is a year round discussion beyond February!
- Parting message from Melissa: Please help us to spread awareness in whatever way you can and continue the conversation!
- Delilah reinforces the message…
Questions for Teens, Parents and Others:
- What are the stats re prevalence of teen dating violence, and at risk teens?
- What is the National Respect Announcement about on Valentine’s Day?
- What were the “first signs-red flags in Juliana’s relationship?
- Why did Juliana think it was her fault?
- What was the turning point for Juliana in trying to seek help?
- What was the outcome regarding recommendations of a restraining order and safety plan?
- What is the importance and significance of iamnotthemedia.org?
- What is the pivotal message and mantra that iamnotthemedia.org conveyed
- What has been the outcome of the efforts of National Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month since its inception in 2010?
- How many people were reached last year with the “Wear Orange” campaign?
- How did Juliana decide to focus on a degree in social work?
- What are some of the parameters that influence lack of reporting of abuse for teens in the Carolinas?
Other References: http://thinkexist.com/quotations/morality/
The comments expressed on this website or on the broadcasts of Shattered Lives do not necessarily reflect the opinions or beliefs of the hosts, producers, or other guests.
Moving the Moral Compass- Dealing with Teen Dating Violence Awareness
The Best Predictor of Our Future is a Respect for History: Lessons from the Connecticut State Police
“There are no extraordinary men… just extraordinary circumstances that ordinary men are forced to deal with.”
Wool uniforms worn year ‘round, thirty hour work shifts, separation from family…all facts of life when working for the Connecticut State Police in the Victorian era. Prior to the birth of the State Police force, the all consuming matters of prohibition, the vice squad, labor disputes and “who stole Mrs. O’Leary’s cow” were handled by an under resourced and frequently corrupt sheriff’s department.
What drove such men to this life of dedication and sacrifice? If it were not for “a few good men who cared,” the remnants of history would have been lost forever. The Connecticut State Police Museum was authorized and created in __ and was the brainchild of former Sargent Jerry Longo. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8ymRdL1FKE&feature=youtu.be.
The Museum serves as an education center, genealogical resource, an academic repository and an inspiration for youngsters and elders alike! Years later, this rich history was captured in print as well, meticulously documented by Sargent Longo. http://www.amazon.com/Connecticut-State-Police-Images-America/dp/1467120219
Shattered Lives Radio took a stroll down memory lane with Jerry to learn more of the trials, tribulations and triumphs of the premier State Police force in the county.
- Announcement regarding the two year- two hour Anniversary Special for “Shattered Lives” Radio
- Introduction to our guest
- Our friend, Tim Palmbach
- A thumbnail sketch of the beginnings of the Connecticut State Police- A hard choice getting started
- In 1903 – $3.00 per day and other struggles
- Discussion – fast forward to 2014 and their reputation with the massacre of Sandy Hook
- “Just being there”…You don’t understand
- A retrospective – What was life like for the police in the Victorian era?
- Example: a Henderson Excelsior Motorcycle: http://www.hendersonmotorcycle.com/History%201918.htm;
- A very rough life…… Signing on for 20 to 30 years
- Ladyjustice asks about the police response with the Hartford Circus Fire.
- The evolution of the Connecticut State Museum – a fifth generation “Pack-rat” and making a promise
- Judge John Danaher- multi-generational
- “I’m running out of numbers and I need ten years to build my building”
- An audio description of some of the best artifacts in the museum-marble replication of their first badge, John Dillinger’s capture, First car two way radio system: http://www.wb6nvh.com/Motadata.htm
- Charles Lindberg and Amelia Earhart- and the “Three L’s”
- Amelia Earhart and the Connecticut Connection – Her official Website-
- Badges, parches, weapons , uniforms, a memorial to fallen officers etc.
- A “focused interest” to preserve history, a genealogical center
- Ladyjustice asks about Jerry’s work with cold cases
- Jerry’s work with Author Michael Dooling and Mike’s connection to law enforcement http://donnagore.com/2012/07/23/clueless-in-new-england-author-michael-dooling-guest-on-shattered-lives/
- A couple of Dr. Henry Lee stories
- Delilah asks about the difference between the several police jurisdictions – “layers of law enforcement.” Who does what when and where?
- Jerry discusses the above question and rationale for all of the police departments
- Who responds when you dial 911? It depends….
- South Carolina, Florida and Georgia differences
- Ladyjustice asks, Do you really need all of the departments in one area?
- How did Jerry’s book develop through Arcadia Publishing:
- 1240 copies…and generating money…
- Book Info also available at Arcadia or the CT Museum: http://www.amazon.com/Connecticut-State-Police-Images-America/dp/1467120219Info:
- The possible second book: Re Zola Bennett Stenographer, First Female Trooper &”Secret Agent”
- See #5 in this Article: http://top10middlesex.blogspot.com/2011/05/top-10-historic-facts-about-connecticut.html
- Contact Info: The Museum is located at the Leo J. Mulcahy Complex, 294 Colony Street, PO Box 1945, Meriden, CT and is open to the public Friday from 12:30 pm to 3:30 pm and Saturday from Noon to 4:00 pm. Call 203.440.3858 for appointments and tour information.
- Jerry’s Parting Message: The humanity of the officer – “a heart beating the chest of the shirt”
Questions At “Roll Call”
- What was the impetus for a State police force, anyway?
- The State Police Force came in second to what other important need?
- What kinds of new duties were common for the police in 1903?
- What agency played a pivotal role at Sandy Hook who was not publically recognized?
- How did the public distinguish regular vehicles from the police in the 1920s?
- Who attended the Hartford Circus Fire that helped mobilize the response?
- What were the barriers to the start of the museum?
- How much did the lease cost for the building?
- What were the circumstances of Amelia Earhart’s ties of Connecticut and getting stopped by the police?
- Why are there only a few police museums across the country?
- What was the “surprise” that Dr. Henry C. Lee needed years ago from Jerry?
- What is the difference between the various police jurisdictions?
- Why do sheriff departments exist?
- What were the trails and tribulations encountered by publishing Jerry’s book?
- Who was the female “Secret Agent” that Jerry discovered?
The Best Predictor of Our Future is a Respect for History:
Lessons from the Connecticut State Police
Fatherly Advice on the Human Condition: “[I'll teach you] how not to leave the windows of your heart open when it looks like rain and how everyone has a stump where something necessary was amputated.” Steve Toltz, A Fraction of the Whole
“Life doesn’t come with a manual, we write our own with experience and wisdom from lessons learned!” Author Unknown
Masters of the trade… There are surgeons whose precision plays a role in life and death; Architects who combine imagination with structural genius for generations to view; Law enforcement who skillfully solve true crime and live in the danger zone 24/7; And then… we have the unsung heroes- (Examples): http://donnagore.com/2012/07/05/unsung-heroes/ –called human service professionals – so overlooked on the pay scale and career ladders of life– doing far more difficult jobs, who use their intellect and a compassionate heart to change the world – one individual at a time. They see the possibilities and envision “The way it could be “…if only. They are inventive, with a true sense of life priorities. They embrace ideas and celebrate accomplishments… however small or large. Most importantly, they enthusiastically serve others –THEY SERVE- and make “their corner of the world “a more just and better place.
Such is the person known as Anne Seymour, (Co- Founder of Justice Solutions) http://justicesolutions.org/as_bio.htm and a much acclaimed, extensively credentialed crime victim advocate, writer, policy analyst and “juggler extraordinaire.”
“Shattered Lives” had the extreme pleasure of interviewing Anne, discussing real issues that try the minds and touch the hearts and souls of survivors of crime and the rest of the world who care. Join us for the journey….
- Introduction to our guest:
- Congratulations to “Shattered Lives” from Anne
- Background from Anne and where her heart is…
- In 1984, “When you’ve got nothin’ you’ve got nothing to lose…”
- Delilah comments re the increase in awareness due to social media and “the silver lining of the internet”
- Discussion on victims obtaining virtual support nationally and internationally
- “The first” massacre: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Whitman
- “The second” massacre: http://www.workplaceviolence911.com/sites/workplaceviolence911.com/files/edmondspomassacre_1.html
- Edmund Oklahoma post office massacre – the first time our leaders at NOVA rose up in unison:
- Dr. Marlene Young: http://www.iovahelp.org/About/MarleneAYoung/
- Becoming more precise and long term in delivering crisis response
- Anne still works with victims from the 2004 Oklahoma City Bombings
- Crisis response also deals with sensitivity issues with death notification, dealing with the media, and “forecasting”
- Ladyjustice asks where the protocols are coming from- the Federal government, the private sector, non-profits and the requirements of crisis response today.
- Ann discusses the differences between community response and what the victim assistance network does
- Example: The 2013 Washington DC Navy Yard Shooting as an example of incredible coordination: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/17/us/shooting-reported-at-washington-navy-yard.html?pagewanted%3Dall&_r=0
- Watching the Washington Nationals play baseball and other comforting gestures
- Developing “lessons learned”, debriefing and “How can we do it better”
- The uniqueness of a Military base and who takes the lead
- Discussion by Anne And Delilah on “no job too small” and the “worker bees”
- The aftermath of Sandy Hook… a Nation touched!
- Katrina – Not making the same mistakes again; The importance of constantly assessing and improving
- Ladyjustice comments, asks about the misunderstood nature of mass shooters (i.e. Patrick Sherrill, Adam Lanza etc.)
- National Sheriff Assn Conference: http://sheriffs.org/content/about-nsa
- Discussion of Mental Health issues: Percentage of those in jail and mentally ill is “through the roof”
- A retrospective – Media Describing Offenders versus Victims- Ted Bundy “handsome, in college, a Republican party volunteer VERSUS the victim “her nude frozen body was found in a snowbank” YIKES!!!
- How do we predict who will do these crimes? EXAMPLE: Aurora- New Law 24 Hour MH Crisis Centers: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/16/theater-attack-prompts-ne_0_n_3288186.html
- Prevention-proactivity versus reactivity- Being more diligent and spotting the red flags
- Delilah describes the historic response to mental health and now “going to the streets” – How do we fix it?
- Anne responds and defends those with mental illness whose behaviors can be contained with good treatment and supervision
- Community based intervention, doing comprehensive assessments while in jail and looking at past trauma, family backgrounds addiction, IPV etc.
- Anne’s metamorphosis over the years since 1984 – working with those across the aisle – defense attorneys, prison officials… So much cross over
- Anne says- MY DOOR IS WIDE OPEN TO ANYONE WHO WANTS TO HELP FIX CRIME VICTIM ISSUES!
- The issue and realities of criminals and survivors in the same families- a holistic approach
- Ladyjustice brings up the topic of victims’ treatment in the media – historically and now
- Anne on social media and the hurtful comments made about crime victims and the development of her victim rights on how to navigate media while protecting victims
- Every victim and case in unique…. Seek out an advocate, law enforcement, clergy to help victims
- “A bright red folder” and a sense of control
- Guide books for Victims and journalists from Justice Solutions.org
- http://www.justicesolutions.org/index.htm-for for Victims
- http://www.victimprovidersmediaguide.com/newsmediaguide.pdf for Media
- Professional trainings available to law enforcement via webinars
- TRAINING RESOURCES: http://www.theiacp.org/;
- Yes, you can do this on your old computer
- The National Crime Victim’s Rights Week April 6th-12th 2014
- Theme: 30 Years Restoring the Balance of Justice: Focus on Restorative Justice
- Discussion of the Federal Crime Victim’s Fund and … sometimes a “giant find” Woo Hoo!
- What does this fund pay for?
- Planning for future SL shows and Ladyjustice’s invitation to come to Washington
- Anne’s Monday Missives – How it all started and how it’s evolved today….
- “We do the work so you don’t have to;” Missives Outreach to 1500 and more…
- A new “Freebie Shattered Lives show”- A Flea market for Victim Assistance
- Anne’s parting message- Everyone is or knows a victim of crime and there’s a plethora of services from a number of resources ready to help
National Crime Victim Advocate
Questions for the Listening Audience:
- How many programs are available for crime victims and how common is crime today?
- How can victims obtain support if they live in small communities?
- How was crisis response created?
- What’s the difference between the structure of mass crisis response in the community and what victim advocates do?
- How many people were served by the 2013 Navy Yard Shooting?
- How do small contributions affect the overall outcome of these tragedies?
- How do we wisely spend our limited resource dollars on the preventative side?
- Criminals versus victims- a clean cut boundary… Is that what it’s about?
- Who is the best resource to go to when victims are approached for interviews in the aftermath of crime?
- How do you train law enforcement to help victims about lack of access to information?
- How are many crime victim services supported?
- How much money has been generated by finds and fees from Federal crimes from 1985 to 2013?
Nurturing the Heartbeat and Pulse of Crime Victims: The Imprint of Anne Seymour
“He reminds me of the man who murdered both his parents, and then when sentence was about to be pronounced, pleaded for mercy on the grounds that he was an orphan.” ……..Abraham Lincoln
“Thou shalt not be a victim. Thou shalt not be a perpetrator. Above all, thou shalt not be a bystander.”
Holocaust Museum, Washington, DC
If we were to distill the essence of a recent conversation with prosecutor David LaBahn, CEO of the Association of Prosecuting Attorneys, the above quotes would rightfully apply. http://www.apainc.org/.
The APA is the only national organization of its kind –a “think tank” providing resources, technical assistance training, collaborating with all criminal justice partners developing proactive practices to prevent crime and advocating for prosecutors and crime victim rights.
David is a mover and a shaker… He is a realist with a heart. However, he sees the potential in changing the status quo for the best of reasons…. Reasons- We can do better and because those who prosecute and those who are victims of violent crime deserve better!
Taking the criminal justice as it stands, although we cannot “rectify history” or change the underpinnings, advocates CAN reconfigure how things are done in substantive ways; they can be the architects for change. Changes in thought, perception, effort, quality of work, “walking in the shoes” of a crime victim, keeping in constant touch with the roots of local communities and legislative bodies, educating and keeping on the cutting edge of learning make for an excellent recipe for the future of criminal justice!
It is only in the telling of what has happened in the past that we can learn to mold the future. By escaping the musty courtrooms and applying skills in town halls and the corner store, prosecutors are paving the way for this metamorphosis like no other method…
How refreshing that the Shattered Lives hosts, had the opportunity to discuss such issues with this “sculptor of justice.” Read below and tune in to learn more…
- Upcoming two year anniversary of “Shattered Lives” radio
- Introduction to our guest
- The “epiphany” moment- There’s never anything new in the human system of the criminal justice system
- “I never thought I’d be a career prosecutor” – 10, 10 and 8
- The system is not balanced and California as the groundbreaker of victim’s rights in the 80s
- Equity for victims, prosecutors issues and how is the impact on victims- Proactive versus reactive methods
- Delilah’s comment on proactivity, reactivity and where is the funding going?
- Ladyjustice asks about going outside of the system and creating his own entity. David responds about making a difference one case at a time, at the county and state level.
- The “good side of it”- Proposition 21 and Proposition 69 in California: Re Gang Violence & Juvenile Offenders http://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_21,_Treatment_of_Juvenile_Offenders_%282000%29
- Bruce Harrington family tragedy- http://journalism.berkeley.edu/projects/election2004/archives/2004/11/dna_fingerprint.html
- Discussion on taking DNA profiles/database of felons and the escalation of crime
- David on criminals “forgetting what their name is”
- “Fifty-One separate justice systems “ and beyond
- Ladyjustice asks a “Prosecution 101” question regarding who prosecutors represent (felony crimes)
- The purpose of the civil system
- A historical perspective on prosecutor’s role and the emergence of a voice for victims
- Reaching out to victim’s – “It’s not just a paper case” since the 1980’s – systemic changes
- Example: Vine System in Connecticut: https://www.vinelink.com/vinelink/siteInfoAction.do?siteId=7000
- “It’s really not that difficult to help your victim…”
- There’s no excuse for victims not knowing who their prosecutor is
- Ladyjustice’s rant on lack of communication between victims and prosecutors
- Small offices versus large offices… and giving them a vision when you have limited resources
- The importance of “my prosecutor” and “we”
- Delilah on fighting for the victim voices to be heard and introduction of Ladyjustice’s Victim Impact Statement
- David on short, poorly written impact statement and “something in the file”
- Marty Crawford , VA from Riverside, CA creating a “pink file”
- Discussion of videotaping victims if they cannot go through the process again or are too old or frail versus paper
- Phones and other video or electronic capabilities
- “Why isn’t she here?”
- The consequences of assurances of “never getting out of prison”
- The APA nuts and bolts explained- and January 20th- a 5 year anniversary
- January 31st Final Friday’s a free one hour webinar – http://www.apainc.org/default.aspx?act=Newsletter.aspx&category=APA+Highlights&newsletterid=2539&menugroup=Home
- The diversity of concerns in a community- What’s a priority with the community? – Hard crime or bicycles on the sidewalk, disposal of grease in restaurants etc. etc.
- If police can’t stop the graffiti, how can you stop a homicide? That is the question! PROACTIVITY and communicating with all victims
- “Let the system do the payback…don’t you do the payback”
- Ladyjustice asks about prosecutor traits and myths
- David discusses coaches, teams and even being a waiter as a good training ground- What? (There is a connection)
- Prosecution is theater…but also humanistic
- Vision and focus of the chief prosecutor
- The “most popular myths”
- Can’t prosecutors make a mistake? Conviction integrity unit
- Parting message – Get involved
- Contact Information:
Association of Prosecuting Attorneys
1615 L St. NW, Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: 202-861-2480 Fax: 202-223-4688
e-mail – email@example.com
Questions from “the Jury Box”
- What was the pivotal event that brought criminal justice to David’s radar and a path to being a prosecutor?
- Why are all of the rights still on the side of the defendant?
- What is community and zone prosecution?
- How do we improve the system of justice at the state level?
- How do we reform a fragmented justice system?
- Who do prosecutors really represent if not the crime victim?
- How do we achieve a better balance and give victims a voice?
- What is the most common scenario when prosecutors “fall down on the job” regarding communication about their cases?
- What do you do when primary family members can’t go through hearings anymore and need to have their views represented?
- Does the APA only deal with prosecutors?
- What are the traits one needs to have to be an effective prosecutor?
- What is the significance of prosecutorial leadership?
- What’s the difference between prosecutorial misconduct and prosecutorial error?
Additional References: http://www.finestquotes.com/select_quote-category-Justice-page-0.htm