Interrogation of Suspects: Why They Lie

1

On the face of it, we know the answer to this question regarding crime and suspects. Guilty suspects lie for various reasons. Innocent suspects even lie when they are “worn down” by fierce interrogation for hours on end and … they just want it all to end!

The topic of interrogation techniques can be a minefield of controversy – one I do not wish to tackle in depth. However, a primer may be appropriate to illustrate the point further on in this blog.

Valuable time, and resources can truly be wasted, in addition to contributing more torment for victim families!  I was horrified a couple of weeks ago while watching an episode of Dateline about a missing person-homicide case which included two examples of lying that put the case off the track. The reasons they lied… had nothing to do with the case, only their selfish motives!  Such is my motivation for this blog!

“In the United States, scholars estimate that somewhere between 42 percent and 55 percent of suspects confess to a crime during interrogation.” 

Human Nature and a ‘Bare Bones Environment” During Interrogation-

According to several internet sources on interrogation, the keys to gaining useful information depends largely on the skill of the interrogator and the type of interrogation method used.typically only two or three uncomfortable chairs, a table, with no access for temperature control, lighting or bathroom facilities in order to “establish dependence on the interrogators.”

Physical Abuse and Deprivation-

In the case Brown v. Mississippi, the Supreme Court threw out a voluntary confession that was obtained after police officers r\ strung a suspect up in a tree and whipped him repeatedly. The Court’s decision was clear: Confessions obtained by force cannot be used as evidence at trial.

In the 1950s, it was okay to deprive a suspect of food. water, bathroom facilities and physically abuse a suspect for hours.

The benchmark case for protection of suspects during interrogation occurred in 1966 in the case of Miranda vs Arizona in which a  kidnapping and rape suspect, Ernesto Miranda, was not informed his rights of obtaining an attorney when questioned and his right to remain silent prior to providing his confession. Many modern day crime shows, particularly Law and Order, have made this case part and parcel of their stories.  

The moral compass with juries perhaps lying about nonexistent evidence versus lying about the welfare of people, particularly children, may not be palatable as have been demonstrated in documented cases brought to the Supreme Court level.

“Interrogators cannot misrepresent a suspect’s legal rights – Court rulings are clear that because the totality-of-the-circumstances, inquiry is fact specific and determinations of the limits of police deception are case specific” (American Psychological Assn.)

The Reid Technique-

A Chicago police officer in the 1940’s developed this technique which relies on observation of  different kinds of eye blinks and  body language, supposedly connoting anxiety which was interpreted as lying. This technique also uses the  control questions while developing a rapport with suspects. However, this technique has been extensively researched for 40 years and debunked. Anxiety does not mean someone is lying. Rather, it is a natural response to a stressful situation.

Good Cop- Bad Cop-

We all know this technique in which one interrogator becomes the aggressor while the other in the team supposedly takes the side of the suspect, becomes his “friend and protector” in order that the suspect will let down their guard during questioning.

The PEACE-  

Steps in the process-1) Preparation and Planning 2)  Engage and Explain, 3) Account, 4) Closure and Evaluate) is a method conceived in the 1990s and used initially in the United Kingdom. It was developed by law enforcement and psychologists, designed to be non-confrontational and to prevent false confessions.  This technique is  considered best practice. As a suspect composes lies, eventually he will be caught in an inconsistency and, voila, the gig is up! ( I dare say, I think DCI, character Jane Tennison- Helen Mirren  (BBC’s Prime Suspect Series) skillfully used this technique!

Dateline- The Halloween Party Episode -1027 October 27, 2017

What happened to Chelsea Bruck, 22 years old, who lived in a farm town located  in Southeastern, Monroe, Michigan? Chelsea was ten years younger than her two best friends and grew up the youngest of five children in the town of Maybee (Kind of like Mayberry), Michigan.

It happened at Big Mike’s Halloween bash on October 25, 2014.  700+ partiers amid several heavy metal rock bands and alcohol under two tents. In the dark with only the light of the moon and a bonfire, all masqueraded guests. What a nightmare for investigators!  

Becky, and friends Penny and Chelsea, were a threesome that night. However, they became separated and Chelsea never made it home. Chelsea did not drive and her homemade poison ivy costume which she labored for months to create, had no pockets for a cell phone.  She tried to call a friend, borrowing a phone for a ride, but it didn’t work out. In the wee hours of the morning, it was learned that there may have been foul play involved. Her friends were remorseful and filled with regrets. One red shoe, and five months later, over 600 tips helped to solve this case.

This was a very engrossing episode, but, when the leads came about, one suspect lied for the attention, and the other lied for revenge in her own sick intimate partner violence scenario.  What? How could anyone do such a thing when a young girl’s life is at stake?

What lessons can we learn from this true account? What lessons are there about the real challenges for investigators and the unconscionable motives of people?  Chelsea’s family and friends were truly inspiring in their long journey for justice. I invite you to watch this documentary: Video- https://www.nbc.com/dateline/video/the-halloween-party/3608893

HELP FOR MISSING PERSONS

If you know of a missing person-unsolved homicide that needs assistance, contact the Cue Center for Missing Persons – http://www.ncmissingpersons.org/about/
Referenceshttps://people.howstuffworks.com/police-interrogation1.htm;

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/05/jn.aspx

http://forensicoutreach.com/library/4-police-interrogation-techniques-you-should-know-and-why-not-all-of-them-work/

https://people.howstuffworks.com/police-interrogation.htm

miranda vs arizona case;

https://i-sight.com/resources/investigative-interviewing-techniques-the-peace-model/


To schedule a presentation with me at your future event or  conference please contact:

ImaginePublicity,  Telephone: 843.808.0859  Email:  contact@imaginepublicity.com

 

Advertisements

In the Shadow of a Former President: Hero JD Tippit in “The City of Hate”

 

What images come to mind for you as a baby boomer, when you hear, school book depository, Dallas, motorcade, assassination? There is no doubt that any one of these terms are instantly associated with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, an icon to so many who grew up or were parents, grandparents in that era.

However, as often happens, there are many untold stories when the central focus is the planning and murder of a world leader, whose aftermath would irretrievably alter the course of history.  It has been reported that there are no less than 200 books covering every facet and perspective of JFK’s assassination.

There was an unsung hero who never got his due because of the explosive nature of this tragedy. I am referring to an 11 year veteran of the Dallas Police Department  known as JD Tippit. As events would reveal, his role in the ultimate capture of Lee Harvey Oswald was very significant. But in the scheme of things, he received very little “ink.” This blog is my attempt to pay tribute to this unsung hero.

 JD’s roots were in northeastern Annona, Texas, with less than 300 people to its credit even in the year 2000. He was one of seven children with ancestors emigrating to Virginia. He spent two years in the Army from 1944 to 1946 and was awarded a Bronze Star for acts of Valor in combat.. JD married his high school girlfriend, Marie Gasway, the day after Christmas in 1946.  He worked for a stove company, Sears and Roebucks after which he was laid off. He then tried his hand as a cattle rancher prior to moving to Dallas where he made the decision to become a police officer via a VA Training program. He was hired as a patrolman in July 1952 and also worked two other jobs. (JD made $490/month as a patrolman. Oswald earned  $1.25/hour as a book order clerk in the Book Depository building)

JD was assigned to the Beat # 78 in south Oak Cliff. On the morning in which he was killed, he checked in at his police substation at 7 a.m and made several stops to see relatives, to return a book, pay for a football ticket and by 10:30 a.m. had coffee and conversation at the Rebel Drive-In, a ramshackle place for coffee with fellow officers.  They discussed the President’s visit and were concerned re the potential for violence.   

According to Washington Post writer, Rachel Siegel, (November 22,2017), Dallas held the reputation as “The City of Hate” with three prior incidents by right-wing extremists signalling, that despite the common folk crowds that amassed the city streets on the motorcade route,  Kennedy would not be welcomed with open arms by in Dallas.

On the Afternoon of November 22, 1963

JD cut his lunch hour with his wife short to just 20 minutes, in anticipation of being needed. At 12:45 p.m.he received a radio call to change his patrol position in Central Oak Cliff.  This was just 15 minutes after President Kennedy was shot by Oswald. A generic description of “a slender white male in his 30’s” was broadcast to those on patrol.   

At the fateful location, just past the intersection of 10th Street and Patton Avenue, JD spotted a slender man walking down the street, wearing a zippered jacket. He called to Oswald through the passenger side window. Oswald leaned into the window with hands in his jacket pocket.  JD exited his patrol car and walked to the front of the car. At that point Oswald drew his handgun and pumped four bullets into JD; his stomach, chest, a button on his uniform, and to his right temple after which he was pronounced dead at Methodist Hospital. JD  received several police honors posthumously in addition to a monument unveiled on November 20, 2012 at the location of his murder.

There were no less than twelve witnesses to the shooting. The utter arrogance of Oswald, who shot JD in cold blood, disposing of spent cartridges, running across lawns and, ultimately, ducking into a movie theater, reported as a non-paying customer that sealed his capture.

The bastard who was a chameleon politically, who desperately wanted to work for Russian intelligence, who was a wife beater, who “wanted to be important” in the world, met his match with Jack Ruby and became infamous in death!

Videos  Oswald’s Escape -(Dan Rather, Walter Cronkite)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lRLExo7IyU

And from Witnesses

1) Shoe Store Owner – John Brewer-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkKo29TRTCc;

2) Warren Reynolds

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wa6MnhlQnUg

3) Helen Markham

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-gap_Cnlt8;

The Aftermath- Marie Tippit and Family

Marie and JD had three children who were irreparably harmed by the death of their father. Over the years, Marie remarried another police officer, was widowed, married again, divorced and ultimately re-took the name Tippit. The public was generous and contributed  $647,579 after the murders. Each child received ~ $80,000.

In 2013, JD’s eldest son Allan, a house painter who worked job to job, was diagnosed with Stage 4 lung cancer after which a fundraiser was held. He was treated at Parkland Hospital, primarily for the indigent, and the same hospital President Kennedy and Lee Harvey Oswald were taken to prior to their deaths.

2013 Interview The Final Day in Marie’s Words

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnNPwqgAslw&t=22s

“Blessed are the peacekeepers, for they will be called children of God”

Matthew 5:9

References:

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/oswald/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._D._Tippit

https://www.jdtippit.com/happen_nov.htm

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/11/22/jfk-in-the-city-of-hate-how-dallas-earned-its-ugly-label-before-the-assassination/?utm_term=.100a3e6afe9c

https://www.dallasnews.com/news/news/2013/01/10/fundraiser-set-for-oldest-son-of-dallas-police-officer-killed-by-accused-jfk-assassin


Donna R. Gore, M.A.

Donna R. Gore, M.A.

 

To schedule a presentation with me at your future event or  conference please contact:

ImaginePublicity,  Telephone: 843.808.0859  Email:  contact@imaginepublicity.com

 

 

Broken Heart Syndrome is Real

Broken hearts is the stuff of romance novels, movies and soap operas…

“The only thing a boyfriend was good for was a shattered heart.”

Becca Fitzpatrick, “Crescendo

“A broken heart is just the growing pains necessary so that you can love more completely when the real thing comes along.”J.S.B. Morse, “Now and at the Hour of Our Death

“Doctoring her seemed to her as absurd as putting together the pieces of a broken vase. Her heart was broken. Why would they try to cure her with pills and powders?”

Leo Tolstoy, “Anna Karenina

 

Broken Heart Syndrome

Literature and fictional portrayals aside, there are many aspects of society that cause a true broken heart.  The most familiar is the romantic sense. I’ve been there a couple of times and it took such a long time to recover, I chose not to entertain the possibility again. It is a grief no one wants. As the walking wounded person, you want to insulate yourself from everything and everyone, aimlessly looking for purpose again. However, the walking wounded do recover and can flourish again.

However, there are true broken hearts of the physical variety.  This is a bona fide medical condition which has several names. One is “broken heart syndrome,” Another is “apical ballooning syndrome.” Still other terms are “stress induced cardiomyopathy” and  takotsubo cardiomyopathy.”  

It all began in 1990 with a Japanese physician who took an image of the heart of an afflicted patient and thought that it resembled the shape of a “Tako-tsubo” the name for a ceramic pot Japanese fisherman use to capture octopus. 



 

What happens?   Symptoms begin with chest pain and shortness of breath and can mimic a heart attack. The disruption of heart pumping, known as a “stunning” or a surge of stress hormones is actually acute heart failure caused by a lack of female estrogen hormones which are short-lived in nature. The left heart ventricle is the main chamber pumping the blood OUT of the heart to the remainder of the body. It temporarily cannot pump the blood forward, resulting in poor circulation, shock, or death.

This condition differs from a heart attack in that a traditional heart attack causes a nearly complete or full blockage of a heart artery due to a blood clot resulting in the narrowing caused by fatty buildup (atherosclerosis) in the artery wall. Broken heart Syndrome blood flow is reduced, not blocked. Other cases have been reported after general anesthesia, transplantation surgery, general surgery.

Complications can include accumulation of fluid into your lungs (pulmonary edema), Low Blood Pressure, Arrhythmia, or Heart Failure.

Women are Most Vulnerable

The incidence of Broken Heart Syndrome is far greater for women, 90% as compared to men;

Women between the age of 58 and 75 (median age, 63) comprise 90% of all reported case;

Cardiologists are now more aware of it with  approximately 5% of women being evaluated for a possible heart attack;

Those with a previous neurologic condition such as seizures, of brain injury or are at greater risk of broken heart syndrome;

Potential Causes

According to a 2017 article from the Mayo Clinic the following are typical causes of BHS: “Broken heart syndrome is often preceded by an intense physical or emotional event.” Some potential triggers of broken heart syndrome are:

  • News of an unexpected death of a loved one
  • A frightening medical diagnosis
  • Domestic abuse
  • Losing — or even winning — a lot of money
  • Strong arguments
  • A surprise party
  • Having to perform publicly
  • Job loss
  • Divorce
  • Physical stressors, such as an asthma attack, a car accident or major surgery

ADDITIONS TO THE LIST- I would add: Homicide, Missing Persons, Sexual assault- Rape, Home Invasion, Kidnapping,  Intimate Partner- Family Violence, Suicide 

The Good News-

Irrespective of it’s initial serious nature, medical documentation from several sources reveal that Broken Heart Syndrome is often rapidly reversible to normal, usually within 14 days. Most patients recover with no long-term damage within a month. And, there is only a small chance that BHS will recur. There is no proven therapy to prevent BHS.  However, eliminating stress is the most common recommendation for prevention.

Medical experts believe that there is a strong connection between brain functions affecting the heart. In fact many seemingly healthy people have suddenly died during a disaster- traumatic event.  Such causes are still not fully understood. Apparently, the media has not  made the connection when reporting these events.  

Thank you, Judy Rust-

Patrick Rust

Sgt. Patrick Rust

A mother’s quest to find the truth about her murdered son! “The systems”  failed Judy Rust over and over. She needs peace in her heart about her son, former Sgt. Patrick Rust who was murdered in 2007. Numerous injustices occurred over time with this still unsolved case.  Rather than peace, she experienced Broken Heart Syndrome after the murder of her son which she shares on this recent Shattered Lives Podcast.  We wish her continued better health and answers to  resolution for this case!  

To listen to her podcast click this link-  http://tobtr.com/10375503

 

References: https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/broken-heart;

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214344/

http://www.thecardiologyadvisor.com/heart-failure/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-expert-opinion/article/639656/

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/broken-heart-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20354617


Donna R. Gore, M.A.

Donna R. Gore, M.A.

 

To schedule a presentation with me at your future event or  conference please contact:

ImaginePublicity,  Telephone: 843.808.0859  Email:  contact@imaginepublicity.com

 

 

Can You Help Bring Clarity to a Missing Person?

An Appeal to Forensic Artists:

What do I mean “bring clarity to a missing person?” No, I don’t mean gather more information to solve the case; I don’t mean bring resolution;   I don’t mean getting media exposure for the case.; I’m not referring to  providing financial resources or respite for families…. These are all wonderful goals for which we can strive. However, in this case, I literally mean clarity of the visual variety.

It has always baffled me how for some cold cases, we are forced to  circulate an old well-worn photograph which is so fuzzy to be nearly useless. If we can’t even decipher the victim’s face, how can we possibly  envision  age progression to the current date?   How can we assist families who no longer have adequate photos to circulate?  I have been criticized for circulating “fuzzy photos.” To that I say, don’t shoot the messenger! ‘ Not my fault; ‘Not anyone’s fault.

So, what are the options for families who have that one photo that represents their loved one from long ago?

There are several image progression tools that you can download from an application. Some examples within the following list may be applicable to use for your missing loved one.

Image Progression Tools

You can view yourself via age progression with help from tools based on an actual image of yourself. Here are some of the recommended applications:

  1. age-me.com: Upload a photo of yourself, and then watch as it is aged before your eyes. You can even set different factors that might influence the way you age. An interesting way to consider your own path of aging, and how it will affect your looks.
  2. PhotoShop: You probably will not be surprised to learn that PhotoShop offers the ability to show age progression. This handy tutorial shows you how to make it happen.
  3. Face of the Future: You can look and see how you might change over the years. Upload your own picture and see how you are likely to change in the future. A great, free tool that provides you with interesting insight.
  4. MyWebFace: You can see your age progression with this animation. Turn yourself into a cartoon figure — and then watch that figure age. Also helps you turn it into an avatar that you can use on your profile pages.
  5. In20Years.com: Cool age progression tool that allows you to age yourself by 20 years. Upload your photo, and then get an idea of how you will look after 20 years have passed.
  6. ThatsMyFace: Transform your face. See your face in 3D, see yourself as older and even create personalized gifts and merchandise using this web tool. One of the funnest options is creating a personalized action figure using your face.
  7. Face Transformer: Use this webtool from the Perception Laboratory to change how you look. Cool tool also lets you change race or sex on top of age. You can also place yourself in a famous painting, or even see what you look like as a Manga character.
  8. GIMP: You can manipulate pictures, including based on age, using the GNU program that allows you to accomplish interesting feats with your face. Helpful and fun
  9. Portrait Professional: Lets you change images and more. You can also add age, on top of being able to retouch and enhance photos.
  10. HourFace: This is actually an iPhone app that allows you to age an image. You can do even do it by the hour, to see how much older you can look in one day.
  11. Your Shape Picture Progress: Helps you take pictures over time, and then create a movie showing your progression. Can help you track weight loss, as well as your age progression.
  12. Make-Me-Old: If you don’t mind paying a subscription fee, you can use this age progression software to see how you will look as you get older. Claims to use FBI grade software to age you.
  13. PhoJoe: This photo art service can help with age progression. However, it is quite pricey, since it is considered forensic art.

Another option which could potentially assist crime victims a great deal, would be the assistance of a forensic artist to volunteer their services in recreating a current likeness of the missing person.

However, it appears that there are not many forensic artists who have the extra time or motivation to lend their services without compensation. (I have reached out a couple of times online  without success.) Recent estimates reveal that there are less than 100 full-time forensic artists in the country.  A majority of artists  are freelancers hired by departments or active-duty officers or other agency employees who are called in when needed. “Twenty or so sketches year, are still not enough work to justify keeping a full-time artist on the payroll.”

According to three veteran forensic artists interviewed for the publication MentalFloss.com in May 2017, the following information was offered:

1) Melissa Cooper, a freelance forensic artist based in California, says that all of our    senses matter when creating a sketch.  For example, asking questions about smells can trigger memory recall for other features. If you recall the cologne, you perhaps can recall other details.

2) Trying to create an exact likeness might make a sketch less likely to resonate with the public.  If there’s one thing wrong, one detail, they’ll say, ‘Oh, that’s not my buddy,’” Cooper says. “When it’s more sketchy, more scribbled, you’re leaving more open to interpretation.” Therefore, according to Lisa Bailey, Author of “Ask a Forensic Artist,” Forensic Artists necessity keep their own self-expression and artistry out of it, not adding information that would create a ‘prettier’ image that could lead someone away from recognition.”

3)The skull says so much, according to Melissa Cooper, “It can tell you where the eyes angled, where the nostrils went where the eyebrows were. Given the choice of a photo of a corpse that’s decomposing or a skull, I’d take the skull.”

4) Some detectives are reluctant to use sketches, as they are wary to rely on the memory of witnesses;

5) Sometimes a forensic artist  completes a sketch in order to corroborate a lead for a suspect they already know.

6) “Don’t forget the ears” – Most people don’t pay attention to ears. As an aid, there are manuals with ear samples to assist witnesses when creating a sketch.

7)  “ Other body parts”… Some reconstructions include a  slight smile in order to expose unusual dentition – a crooked tooth, etc. When working with a decomposed – featureless  body  in the woods, artists are actually assisted by looking in nearby bird nests, as they love to collect hair for the building of their nests!

A Personal Appeal – With this information as a backdrop, I ask once again if there might be a forensic artist reading this blog who would lend their time to selected homicide -missing person cases sorely in need of a new image.

Two cases in point from Connecticut-

Evelyn Frisco-

Missing From:New Haven, CT

Missing since:06/29/04

Classification:Endangered Missing

Age at Disappearance: 42

Date of Birth: 05/24/62

White Female

Height: 5’2

Weight: 125 lbs

Hair:Blonde

Eyes: Blue

Scars,Marks Tattoos: Tattoo of a “rose” or “butterfly” on possible right shoulder, scar on leg, upper dentures.

Clothing: Possibly carrying a black pocket-book.

Nickname:Evy

Circumstances of Disappearance:

After a court appearance, Evelyn was never seen again. Evelyn was last seen in the New Haven, CT area.

Investigative Agency:

New Haven Police Department

(203) 946-6304

If you have any information on this case please contact CUE Center For Missing Persons using the contact form below or contact Cue Center at (910) 343-1131 24 hour tipline (910) 232-1687.

All information submitted to CUE Center For Missing Persons is confidential.

Mary Badaracco

Nickname: Mary Poo

Disappeared from: 25 Wakeman Hill Rd- Sherman, CT

Height:5’7 in.

Weight:145

Age at Disappearance: 53

Sex:Female

Eyes:Brown

Hair:Brown

Complexion: Dark

Race:White

Date of Birth: 3/11/46

Details:

Missing Person | Homicide Victim

Circumstances of Disappearance:

Unknown. Mary was last seen at her residence in the vicinity of the 20 block of Wakeman Rd. Her husband stated that when he returned home from work, she was missing. Most of her belongings were also missing, although her vehicle was still at her residence with the windshield smashed in. Foul play is suspected. A $50,000 reward is being offered by the state of Connecticut for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person(s) responsible for Mary’s disappearance and/or homicide.

Connecticut State Police

Western District Major Crime Squad

800-376-1554

Or the CUE CENTER FOR MISSING PERSONS-(910) 232-1687 -24 Hour Line Tip line

 

References- http://www.mastersingerontology.com/top-25-incredible-age-progression-tools-online.html

http://mentalfloss.com/article/500470/15-secrets-police-sketch-artists

http://www.ncmissingpersons.org/missing-persons/missing-other-states/